潘赟《作文九宫格》总结

CH1 总论要求:写作策略:语言 > 结构 > 内容

CH2 短文写作第一段0 话题引起1 图画描述2 图画总结:承上启下中间段:论证分析3 引出意义4 意义阐释5 意义总结结尾段:评论6 评价归纳7 建议措施8 憧憬未来

CH3 应用文写作书信通知

CH1 总论

要求:



字数:应用 100-120 短文 160-200 每行 10-12

时间:应用文 15(2+12+1) 短文 40(3+35+2)

常见错误:that 从句,三单,标点,时态


写作策略:语言 > 结构 > 内容

  1. 语言 – 词语
    • 词语准确,在能保证意思准确的情况下,尽量写更不通用的具体的词;
    • 多变:

      think —— contend, claim, argue, hold the view that, as far as I can c, from my personal perspective, from my point of view, to my way of thinking, in my eyes, in my mind, it’s generally believed that, as is known 2 all, it is well-known that

      People —— individual 个体,resident 居民,citizen 公民

      分类:men and women, old and young

      More and more —— an increasing number of xxs, increasingly xxous

      Important —— significant, crucial, essential, critical; of great/utmost importance; Of great importance is…

      Show —— reveal, indicate, depict, imply, suggest, disclose
    • 温暖:

      动词前 + 形容词:vividly depict, subtly reveal, strongly believe, differ considerably/markedly/clearly/slightly

      形容词前 + 副词:fairly useful, really helpful, utterly/completely different, rather difficult, fast enough

      名次前 + 形容词:utmost importance, in my humble opinion, intense/fierce competition, comprehensive/sustainable development, effective/efficient action

      并列,押韵:in a reasonable and rational way, effective and efficient measure, limited and little effort, prejudicial and partial report


  2. 语言 – 句子
    • 准确:五种简单句:主谓,主谓宾,主系表, 主谓双宾,主谓宾宾补
    • 复杂原则:+ 形容词副词,+ 插入语,+ 介词结构作状语(in xx),非限定状从(which …)
    • 多样原则:
      • 倒装句:

        地点状语 + 谓语 + 主语:In the sunshine stands a young lady.

        only:Only in this way can we enjoy a better life.

        形容词/名词 + as + 主谓:Tired as he is,
      • 强调句: It is/was 主语 that/who 谓语
      • 虚拟语气:

        是该…时候:It’s high time that we took effective and efficient methods to solve the problem

        虚拟语气省略倒装:if 引导的虚拟条件句,省略 if,条件句中的主谓倒装

        Were I you, I would choose another course.

        were it to be used in other situations, a negative effect would result.

        were the situation to continue, we would pay a high price.
      • 省略句:

        时间状语从句省略:When (u’r) in Rome, do as Rome do.

        条件状语从句省略:if necessary, if -possible, if true
      • 最高级:比较级 + 否定 = 最高级


  3. 结构:九宫格
    • 基本结构:描述图画(包含要点 & 次重点),阐释图画意义(举例/原因/结果论证),个人评论(给出具体意见/建议)
    • 九宫格:主体:147

      |开头段|0话题引起|1图画描述|2图画总结|40-60

      |中间段|3意义引出|4意义论证|5意义升华|60-80

      |结尾段|6归纳评论|7建议措施|8憧憬未来|50-60
    • 层次鲜明:关联词的运用(”为介词)
      • 列举/次序:first, firstly, first of all, t begin with, in the first place, for one thing;

        second, secondly, in the second place, for another;

        finally, last but not least;
      • 递进:besides, plus, moreover, furthermore, in addition, additionally, more important;
      • 举例:for instance, as an illustration, to illustrate;
      • 对比:similarly, likewise, in the same way, equally important;

        on the countrary, conversely, by/in contrast, whereas, otherwise;
      • 让步:though, despite”, it’s true that, admittedly;
      • 转折:yet, however, nevertheless, instead;
      • 原因:as, since, owing to”, due to”, on account of”;
      • 结果:thus, consequently, hence, therefore, accordingly, as a consequence, on that account;
      • 强调:actually, in fact, indeed, chiefly, particularly;
      • 总结:in conclusion/short/brief/summary, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude;


  4. 内容:
    • 别跑题:站在大部分考生的立场思考问题
    • 以人为本,三个关系:人自身发展,人与他人和社会发展,人与自然发展;
    • 例子多用;
    • 正/负/中立,确定后用明确的感情色彩写;




CH2 短文写作

第一段



要点:至少要描述画面;

加分点:第一句引出主题,最后一句概括评价,并引出下文;


0 话题引起

  • 社会现象:The past several years/decades/centuries have witnessed a (not uncommon) social phenomenon that …
  • 人们慢慢意识到:There’s an increasing/expanding/mounting national/worldwide awareness/consciousness/concern of the importance/detriment/i&d(重要性和有害性并存)/pros and cons of …
  • 负面话题转化正面话题:In no country/area other than B, it is been said, is the problem of A more serious/severe/adverse(不利)/exciting/favorable(有利).
  • 现象:Almost no one in A can fail to notice/pay attention to the phenomenon/issue(问题)/situation that …
  • 热点新闻:Recently, it often hits the headlines of the newspaper/journal/periodical(期刊) that A, which has aroused/provoked/awaken a heated/intense discussion among the public.
  • 热门话题:These days, there’s a hot topic among the general public (关于,+ 名词) concerning/regarding/respecting/in/with reference to …

    These days, one of the hottest topics arousing general concern is …


1 图画描述



总公式:如图所示基本公式。+ (关联词,第二幅图描述)+ 文字说明

  • 如图所示

    As is (vividly) shown in the (ridiculous) picture,

    It’s vividly/subtly/symbolically/clearly shown/described/revealed/portrayed/illustrated in the ridiculous/thought-provoking/eye-catching picture/cartoon/drawing/photograph/ ~portrayal~ / ~caricature~ (讽刺漫画) that …
  • 关联词:

    主题相同:similarly, likewise, furthermore, moreover

    主题相反:yet, on the contrary, unfortunately, ironically, regrettably

    通用:meanwhile
  • 基本公式:在哪里 在干啥(详细的)在干啥,with (详细的)在干啥。P30-34
  • 两幅图:找两幅图关系 – 对应关联词 – 分别描述图画
  • 中文小标题:
    • 直译:The caption reads/ Just as the caption indicates/ The subtitle reads/indicates
    • 意译:When reviewing the subtitle, one cannot help wondering/ Hence, the picture connotes a major theme of
    • 题目:Below the drawing, there is a topic which says


2 图画总结:承上启下



直接默写以下句子即可!

Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning of it is as deep as the ocean.

~Ridiculous as it is, what the caricature conveys to us is thought-provoking.~

Not only informative is the implication, but instructive as well.

The author’s real purpose/true meaning is not the picture itself, but to lead us to find what hides behind the picture.

what is depicted in the picture seems exaggerated/abstract/ridiculous, which has attracted extensive attention of the society.

But is this what the author tries to tell/convey to us? Certainly/Apparently not.


中间段:论证分析

3 引出意义

  • 重视:Undoubtedly, the purpose of the drawing is to show us that due attention should be paid to …
  • 社会现象:Conspicuously, the drawing symbolically reveals a not uncommon social phenomenon in our daily life: …
  • 揭示关系:The ~metaphorical~ (极富寓意)/exaggerative/ridiculous and impressive picture has subtly revealed/demonstrated the relationship between … and …
  • 精神品质:This picture illustrates/reflects the true meaning of …, by underlining the fact that … is a kind of mental/physical strength, which can support us no matter how hard/dark/indifferent the world/interpersonal communication around us becomes.
  • 有利/害:Actually, the author strives to send out an abundantly apparent message that … is of extreme detriment(有害)/supreme importance to one’s success.
  • 万能1:What lies behind the picture or “buried” in … is conspicuous:

    … is not only necessary but indispensable as well.

    … is not only harmful but damaging as well.

    the significance/merit of … coexists with the detriment.
  • 万能2:It goes without a saying/There’s no denying that its symbolic/abstract message that/of … has gone beyond the picture itself.


4 意义阐释

  1. 定义和解释
    1. 下定义:将抽象词展开 + 引入下文

      What is the definition of 主题词 ? 主题词, just like 事件, is 事件中的做法.

      Non-stop —— running —— never stop making progress

      cooperation —— teamwork —— the combination of individual’s strength

      It’s hard to define … So-called … is …
    2. 再解释:将主题词从反面再说一遍 In other words/namely/to be specific


  2. 联系社会实际:三步走 不常用

    分别找出图中事物,一一对应象征事物,用“象征词”链接图中物和象征物

    象征词:symblolize/be reserved as/represent/embody


  3. 举例和调查
    注意题干要求是要一个例子 an example 还是 examples 要多个例子!
    1. 引出例子:

      for instance; A case in point is …;

      The point is best illustrated/demonstrated by the example of …

      Our human history has been filled with a wide variety of examples on XX, with the following one/XX being the most persuasive.

      Among the touching facts relating to this topic that I’ve heard, noticed and experienced, the most impressive one is …

      Numerous illustrations can be given, but this will suffice:
    2. 例句总结:

      It’s only one of the various examples I’ve ever heard/read/encountered. Similar stories happen everyday.

      This is not an isolated example. In reality, many people will do similarly in the same situation.
    3. 科学调查:

      A recent survey can back up my point. The survey conducted by PKU, after polling sb., has found that a significant percentage of respondents claimed that …
    4. 万能例子:
      • Jack Ma, the founder of Alibaba, starts from scratch yet develops Alibaba into one of the most valuable technology companies in the world after raising $25 billion from its US IPO.

        // TODO
    5. 详细举例:引出例子 – 背景介绍 – 例子定义 – 调查展开 – 例子总结 P67


  4. 原因和后果
    1. 引出原因:

      What exactly contributes to this phenomenon? It’s a thought-provoking question.First and foremost … In addition …
    2. 引出后果:

      中性 There seem to be more than one direct or indirect effects involved in …, which none of us can fail to notice. Firstly..

      坏 The problem mentioned above is bound to generate several consequences if we keep turning a blind eye to it/if it’s left unfettered. First, …
    3. 常见因果:效率 发展 环境 健康 经济 便利 文化教育 社交情感

      + : contribute to/advance/boost/exert a positive influence/conductive

      – : nothing but a wast of/hamper/suffer a great destruction/pose a threat to/exacerbate/undermine/detrimental influence
    4. 万能原因
      1. 政府 & 法律:

        There might be a loophole(漏洞) in law about…

        Due to a lack of Pertinent laws and regulations,

        Current enforcement of laws and regulations might be ineffective or inefficient.
      2. 媒体 & 社会:

        Coverage of mass media might be partial or exaggerated.

        A lack of social concern over … leads to …
      3. 公民行动 & 意识:

        A lack of the individual consciousness of … results in …


  5. 对立观点分析(中立话题)
    1. 引出争议:

      When it comes to XX, views/notions might vary from person to person.

      Never before in history has the phenomenon of XX been talked so much as nowadays.

      As a matter of fact, this comic/caricature with a dual meaning asks us a controversial question: Is this phenomenon a blessing or a curse? Views might …

      In fact, there is no consensus of opinions among people over the issue of …

      可以直接默写的句子:

      Each coin has two sides, and this issue is no exception.

      There is much controversy over this trend.

      In fact, this matter is still open to discussion.
    2. 正方理由 + 观点:

      On one hand/For one thing, some people hold the view that/incline to … To be specific, they claim/argue/state/assert that … For instance, …

      As is indicated in the popular wisdom that …, there is always a reason to say “Yes.” Moreover, some people argue that …
    3. 反方理由 + 观点:

      On the other hand, a majority/minority of people maintain that … To begin with, Furthermore, For instance .

      Nevertheless, other people adopt a completely different view, arguing that …

      However, those who strongly oppose are not among the minority. They hold that …
    4. 缩略版:让步段
      1. 引出争议 – 正方观点 – 反方观点 – 反方理由( – 举例 )

        In fact, this issue has long been a matter of debate. Admittedly, a minority of people may hold the view that … Yet, a majority of people hold the other side of this picture. Listed below are their reasons. Firstly, Secondly, For instance .
      2. 引出争议 – 对方观点 – 批判对方 – 自己观点

        In fact, there is much controversy over this trend. Granted, some people argue that this XX phenomenon is positive. However, in my eyes, this argument tends to be partial/too extreme/logically irrelevant/filled with obvious flaws. To the best of my knowledge, this is harmful, mainly because …
    5. 利弊分析:

      +:

      beneficial for

      The advantages of XX far outweigh its disadvantages.

      It’ll give rise to a number of benefits.

      It will bring a multitude of strengths.

      -:

      detrimental to

      The disadvantages of XX far outweigh its advantages.

      bring countless drawbacks/give rise to a host of problems


5 意义总结



总结 + 过渡

+- How can we, not being XX, know the happiness of him/her?

+ Were there no XX, never would we taste the happiness of life.

– Were the negative impact of this situation to continue, we would pay a heavy price.

+ Without XX, how could it be possible for XX to achieve the ultimate goal?


结尾段:评论

评价 + 建议 + 憧憬未来(+ 名人名言画龙点睛)

6 评价归纳



+- In view of/Considering/Given every aspect of this phenomenon, we should bear in mind that …

– This situation being so severe/acute/grave/dire, it’s high time that we took(过去时虚拟语气) measures to take effective and efficient measures to …

+- If used carelessly or without restraint, … could turned out to be a double-edged sword.

+- From my part, whether the ultimate effect of … is good or not, one thing is certain that … in itself is neither good or bad. It is the uses to which it is out that determine its value to society.

+- When considering opinions of both sides, I’m inclined to be in favor of the former/latter one./I found that pros and cons are of equal weight./I intend to believe that advantage far outweigh the disadvantages./I commit to the notion that flaws far outweigh the merits.

+- On the basis of the factors mentioned above, we may draw a conclusion that …


7 建议措施

  • 扬长避短:直接默写

    In terms of …, we should take advantage of the fruits and avoid the opposite fact.

    We should, therefore/by and large/all in all, as the common saying goes, “absorb the essence and neglect the drawbacks”.

    What we should do is to encourage the strengths and diminish the weakness.
  • 媒体

    The mass media, such as radio,television and the Internet, should make every effort to propagate and advocate the positive thing/reveal and prevent the negative thing.

    We must promote and popularize XX among the public from every detail in our daily life.
  • 政府

    (4 1 thing) The gov should shoulder the responsibility to educate every citizen to …

    (4 another) Laws and regulations should be worked out and enforced to …

    Laws must be passed to prohibit sb. from doing …
  • 个人

    take for practical actions/ enhance the consciousness of/

    The cultivation of … depends on the active participation of every citizen of our society.


8 憧憬未来



直接默写

  • 负面

    With these measures taken, it is reasonable for us to believe that the problem will be solved in the near future.

    With appropriate laws and alert public, it will only be a matter of time before the problem becomes a thing of past.

    Only through the efforts of both the government and the individuals can we curb the current undesirable phenomenon and build up a more harmonious society.

    If all the solutions are put into practice, the prospect will become more desirable.
  • 憧憬未来

    Only with these measures/by the joint efforts of the whole society can we make our world more colorful and vigorous/create a real conservation-minded/saner society.

    By waiting and hoping, we will be able to achieve our ultimate goal and embrace a bright future.

    Looking further ahead, we can say with full confidence that only in this way can we expect a more healthy young generation.


CH3 应用文写作

书信

先分清私人/公务
称呼 Dear Sir/Madam Dear Mr./Ms.+name Dear Prof./Editors
开头:1除了私人信函,先介绍自己;2写信目的
中间:总 The relevant details are as follows.
内容:分 对提纲要求改写?咨询顺序?无提纲 – what why how
问对方:I wonder if you will be available at
提建议:What about ? How about doing sth?
说自己:As/Since/Because
结尾:背诵(感谢+求回+常联系)
礼貌语&署名:不熟/名字未知-Yours faithfully/truly 一般-Yours sincerely 好友-Yours
P245 语言 P247 句式

通知

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