研究生面试综合问题整理

  • 自我认知类
    • hobby
    • the most impressive book
    • What are you good at?
    • strength? / character
    • weakness
    • family
    • What do you think about living together with your parents?
    • hometown
  • 本科经历
    • project
    • university
    • roomate
    • your major
    • show ur creative / overcome difficult
    • most impressive course
    • professional book
    • prize
    • graduation thesis
    • 你相比于科班生有什么优势
  • 报考动机
    • 为什么要考研
    • Why data science major / change your major
    • Why choose PKU
    • 你相比于计算机科班生,还有什么欠缺?
    • the most important changes in data science over the past 5 years
  • 未来规划
    • 研究生阶段的学习和研究计划
    • 研究方向
  • 非常规
    • 考研失利怎么办
    • 为什么本科成绩不好
    • 应对课业负担
  • 其它
    • 没回答好 圆场结尾句:
  • coronavirus
    • what do you think of the coronavirus?
    • what measures has been took ?
    • What do you think of the influences of the coronavirous?
    • What is your biggest harvist during the pandemic?
  • Others

自我认知类

hobby

I like swimming after classes, I was the champion of swimming in my colledge last year.

And I like to read books in my leisure time, my favourate book are about bussiness, history, and politics, those books shaped my values and teaches me how to observe the world.

After reading, I’d like to write. I have my own website ivenwang.com, I post articals about my thoughts towards life and current events, and also, posting technology aricals like other programmers do. these experience improved my ability to express and my logical thinking skills.

the most impressive book

The most impressive book to me is THE WISDOM OF LIFE by Schopenhauer. It had a great influence on the formation of my character, It comfirms that it is cool to stay with myself alone, and what I should chase for my life is not money but a sense of happniess and compishment. At that time, I turned into a person focusing on my own things instead of interrupetd by others’ comments. And everytime I read it again, I treat it like a mirror for introspection.

What are you good at?

I’m good at taking photos, making videos, making powerpoint which must be credit to my work experience in a film company. Also, I’m good at swimming, I was the champion of swimming in my colledge last year.

strength? / character

I feel that my strongest asset is my ability to stick to things to get them done, and constantly optimize my plans and goals during the process step by step. I would just try my best, instead of pursuing perfect. I’m always optimistic and positive, and I will never feel furstrated, because I’m solution-orientid. I feel a real sense of accomplishment when I finish a job and it turns out just as I’d planned, which in return, will motivate me to have a further plan. And as this cricle goes, the success is not far.

weakness

I’m not good at interpersonal skills. So during the past four years in my collegde, I did a lot to overcome that. For instance, I’ve partivcipated lots of volunteer projects, …, which enhanced my ability of organization and leadership.

family

My family is warm and harmonious, my parents are both kind and hardworking. Although I am the only child in my family, my parents taught me to share, and never be selfish. They taught me to be a kind person, and to pursue happiness with my own efforts. We share lots of love in the family, and i’m very grateful to them. I hope I could buy them a house with a small garden which is their dream.

What do you think about living together with your parents?

I think living with my parents offers a lot of benefits, like they could take care of everything for me such as diet and daily life, so i can focus on my study better. However, if i don’t live with them, I can enjoy better privacy, freedom and independence, so givien the choice, I will still choose to live alone.

hometown

I born in …, which is one of the biggest industrial cities in china. It’s famous for …. People here are satisfied with themselves, and live a simple and happy life. However, …’s economy has fallen in recent years, and missed the trend of the Internet economy, which is also the reason I come to Beijing for university. I wish i could contribute to the economy there if someday i’ve got companies, just like, u know, mayun’s alibaba to hangzhou.

本科经历

project

在该项目中所担当的角色、本人完成的工作、该项目的亮点

university

I am an undergraduate at …. I love my university. It gave me the initial courage to begin my colledge life. The perfect patience of my teachers comforted my study anxiety, and they taught me how to be an academic person, which is always stand on the solid ground, and always do the solid research work.

roomate

My roommates are very nice people, we have classes together, have lunches together, and when someone’s in trouble, everyone will try to help him together. Their diligence motivated me to devote more energy into study. We help each other in study and life. Our room is often filled with laughter and joy. For now, it is the year of graduation, I believe each of us will have a bright future after graduation.

your major

I major in …, which focus on the courses like …. But I don’t like those courses very much, for it’s not so practical. So during my colledge, I’ve learned python and spider by myself, and did some practical projects about data science.

It is this passion towards data science motivated me to apply for PKU, and I’ve lost time in my undergraduate, I hope I could be a postgraduate and compensate thos years before, fully use the time, learn those maching learning theories, read papers as much as I can.

show ur creative / overcome difficult

most impressive course

In the third year of university, I attended a machine learning course. In this course, I finally understand what neural networks are: I learned the basics of density estimation, nearest neighbors, linear models, support vector machines, and so on. Knowing that neural network is just a structure used to fit functions, not a black box. And from then, various of mathematical principles in this field make me fascinated, and motivated me to learn further.

professional book

During the days when I was preparing for the first examination, I’ve read a lot of text books on computer science, including algorithms and data structure, computer networks, computer organization, operating system and so on.

In the machine learning field, I’ve read a book statistical natrual langurage processing by zongchengqin, I learn the basic knowledge in NLP from this book. However, to tell the truth, I mainly learn knowledges from the courses in the internet, and technology articles and blogs in csdn or github, and papers from top conferences. I think in this era, the internet is the best teacher.

prize

graduation thesis

In this process, I read various related literatures, and have a better understanding of … During the implementation of the code, I learned the use of frameworks such as TF keras, which is also an essential ability for my future research.

In addition, I have compiled the papers I have read before and made a survey about …. In the process of completing the survey, I learned a lot of scientific research methods, such as how to read the paper, how to make an abstract, how to make a summary, how to summarize the progress every week, how to optimize the original plan, and so on. These are the soft skills of research, which will definitely lay a solid foundation for my future postgraduate study and be very helpful for my future research.

你相比于科班生有什么优势

我认为通信的知识和机器学习是有非常大的关联的,我用两个例子举例。首先是语言,自然语言其实就是人类通信的工具,那我们做自然语言处理,就要把它当做通信里解码的问题,一开始人类做自然语言处理,用的是文法,效果很不好;后来用的基于统计的方法,其实就是在解决通信问题,效果一下子就好得多。而且也正是因为用统计的方法解决自然语言处理问题,现在才能用神经网络、用深度学习来做 NLP。
第二个是我之前毕设里研究过的谱方法,我之前在信号处理里面学过频谱变换,而当我学了谱聚类,了解了数据在高维特征空间的表示之后,我才终于明白

报考动机

为什么要考研

对机器学习感兴趣,希望深入了解研究,同时培养科研能力,提升见识修养

The first reason is that I have a strong passion to further explore machine learning. The undergraduate study is mainly concerned the basic knowledge and general theory. I have a long way to go before becoming a researcher of machine learning, so I want to stand on a higher platform, enrich my knowledge, and make the greatest contribution this subject.

The second reason is that I want to compensate what I lost in the past time. After entering university life, I didn’t pay all the effort on my major study. So when I devote all my time and energy to prepare the postgraduate exam, when I stand here today, I realized the true value of youth, which is to work hard.

To be a postgraduate student really means a lot to me, which is the result of long-term effort of day and night, the persistence of never giving up, the excitement of getting to know the score, and the deep understanding of my pursuit. So I truly hope I could be a postundergraduate learning data science in Peking University.

Why data science major / change your major

兴趣 具体到点-学到什么 有了XX的研究方向

Computer science acturally exerts great fascination on me in the undergraduate stage. Compared with my original major of telecommunication, it has 2 unique features that appeal to me most.

First is its prcticality. Programming really changed my life and it brings me a lot of convenience. I wrote programmes to remove the watermark, I wrote programmes to compare the historical performance of different stocks and funds. I even wrote a program to buy the goods on Taobao faster than human.

Second one is data science is a leading technology in computer science, which i think will definitely change the world. I hope I could learn those state-of-the-art theories.

Therefore, I ‘ve gro strong passion on machine learning. In fact, during my undergraduate, almost all of my actively study is in the major of computer science. All of those are originated from my intrest and passion on data science. Even if I will encounter difficulties, I will never be discouraged, cause it is my motivating power.

Why choose PKU

看到同学在这里学习的改变,本科期间认识一些北大人,也想成为这样的人

我高中好友在北大物院学习,在跟他交流的时候,我不仅经常能感受到他对科研的热爱,思维的严谨,我还从他身上看到伟大的抱负,对社会的思考,为国为民的侠者风范。我还接触过一些北大的同学,这些人都让我非常敬佩,我也想成为这样的人。我想站在更高的平台上,丰富自己的见识,对国家作出最大的贡献。

My good friend in high school is studying at the Physics College of Peking University. When communicating with him, not only can I often feel his love for scientific research and rigorous thinking, but I also see great ambitions about our society. I have also some friends of Peking University’s, I admire these people very much, and I also want to be such a person. I want to stand on a higher platform, enrich my knowledge, and make the greatest contribution to our country.

A good university does not only pour specific knowledge into the students’ mind, but also plant a seed in their hearts, which will inspire them to be a better man physically, mentally, academically and spiritually. And Peking University is such a good university.

你相比于计算机科班生,还有什么欠缺?

在准备考研的过程中,我系统地学习了数据结构,操作系统,计算机组成,计算机网络,对于计算机科学也算是有了系统的了解。在准备机试的过程中,我也具体学习并实现了各种数据结构,我发现很多机器学习算法其实就是数据结构的问题,比如层次聚类就是构造一颗哈弗曼树,谱聚类其实就是二分图问题。在大学期间,我还自学了 python 和爬虫,给别人做过几十个毕设项目,使用代码解决问题的能力比较熟练。

但是有几门课我没有系统的学习,我准备在这个暑假,上网课自学。这些课程包括:编译原理,软件工程,离散,设计模式。我相信经过暑假的学习,我的基础知识不会比科班学生差。

对于数据科学专业来说,我最大的短板就是数学了,我考研数学没有发挥好,分数很低。我准备在这个暑假再次复习一遍考研数学,并着重学习矩阵分析和概率论的那些模型,为研究生的学习打下坚实基础。

In the process of preparing for the postgraduate entrance examination, I systematically studied data structure, operating system, computer organization, and computer network. Therefore, I’ve got a systematic understanding of computer science.

In the process of preparing for the computer test, I specifically learned and implemented various of data structures. I found that many machine learning algorithms are actually data structure problems. For example, hierarchical clustering is to construct a Huffman tree, and spectral clustering is actually Bi-partite graph problem. In college, I also learn python and spider by my self, and I have done dozens of complete projects for others. I am proficient in using code to solve problems.

However, there are several courses that I do not study systematically. I plan to study by myself on the Internet during this summer vacation. These courses include: compilation principles, software engineering, discrete, design patterns. I believe that after the summer vacation, my basic knowledge will not be worse than computer science students.

For data science majors, my biggest shortcoming is mathematics. I didn’t play well in my postgraduate entrance examination and my score was very low. I plan to review the postgraduate mathematics again this summer vacation, and focus on learning matrix analysis and the models of probability theory, which will lay a solid foundation for graduate study.

the most important changes in data science over the past 5 years

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/24699780

有监督 视觉:图像分类,图像检测,图像分割,图像标注,图像生成,
强化学习:给定一些奖励或惩罚,强化学习就是让模型自己去试错,模型自己去优化怎么才能得到更多的分数。
深度无监督学习:GAN,deep clustering

机器学习这个学科从 20 世纪 50 年代诞生,同时出现感知器模型;到了 80 年代,神经网络,反向传播,多层感知器,自组织映射,受限玻尔兹曼机诞生,机器学习进入第一次高潮;1995年 svm 被发明,该方法在小样本下有较好的推广能力,几乎不需要调参,算法复杂度不依赖于样本维数,再加上有着较强的理论基础支持,迅速成为机器学习研究的主流方向;06年 DBN 被发明,12 年 CNN 被发明,15 年 Alphago 的胜利,激发了人工智能的第三次热潮。

The discipline of machine learning was born in the 1950s with the appearance of perceptron models; in the 1980s, neural networks, back propagation, multilayer perceptrons, self-organizing mapping, and restricted Boltzmann machines were born, and machine learning entered the first stage.

In 1995, the svm was invented. This method has a good generalization ability under a small sample, and it requires almost no parameter adjustment. The algorithm complexity does not depend on the sample dimension, and it has a strong theoretical basis. It quickly became the mainstream direction of machine learning research;

DBN was invented in 2006, CNN was invented in 12 years, and Alphago’s victory in 15 years inspired the third boom of artificial intelligence.

This is the interesting point of academic study. It seems like there is no absolute right answer, which brings more space for the young man lie me to imagine, explore and discover.

未来规划

研究生阶段的学习和研究计划

  1. 在暑假学习 TF & Keras 的使用,过托福;
  2. 研一打好基础:凸优化,非凸优化,矩阵分析,统计学习方法,机器学习经典算法,计算语言学,图像音频处理;同时给导师和学长打杂,熟悉研究流程,找到论点
  3. 研二研三:论点->论文 循环;直博?出国?待定

在硕士期间,除了完成学院要求的课程学分之外,我将在未来导师的指导下从两个方面来规划自己,分别为学术科研和工程实践。在学术科研方面,我将在导师的指导下从阅读大量文献开始,到跟着师兄师姐做实验、进而撰写文章到成功发表,我的目标是争取在毕业之前发表一篇高水平的文章,此外,我还想在硕士期间寻找机会参加国际学术会议,与世界大牛进行学术交流。在工程实践方面,我将积极参加实验室(课题组)的横向项目,作为一个计算机专业的研究生,除了科研,较强的动手能力也是必须的,参与到实验室的横向项目便是一个很好的锻炼,不仅可以真正的解决实际需求,也能做到学校与社会接轨,同时也能让我们的技术体现价值。

I will make my study arrangement according to the semesters. The first semester is the best time to build the theory foundation, so I will devote all the time to learn optimization, matrix analyze, statistical learning methods, computational linguistics and other lecturs or seminars. And assist my supervisor to do some detaild work in the project. I will read all the books my supervisor recommends and try to read as many books as possible.

In the next two semesters, I will do researches and write thesis with the guidance of my supervisor. My principle is the earlier, the better. I have a strong willing to publish papers on top level conferences, like AAAI and CVPR.

Plans was just what I imagined according to my current congnition, maybe not reasonable and practical, but I always hold the belief that action speaks louder than words. Beacuse a qualified postgraguate student should act before he speaks and afterwards speaks according to his action.

研究方向

I’m interested in the fundamental theories and the mathematical theories of machine learning. And, to tell the truth, I just made efforts in the subfields including deep clustering, text classification and Named Entity Recognition. And I just read abook about NLP, so my knowledge is not enough to drive me to make a choice on the directions I will research. As far as I’ve learned, I’m interested at (dialogue systems(在场的老师的研究方向有什么,到时候改成那几个)) the most,

导师对应方向的英文专有名词

自己找…

非常规

考研失利怎么办

Indeed, now I have half the chance to success and half to fail. If I’m failed, I will first find the reasons and reflect on the shortcomings of myself. Read more professional books and literature, re-learn mathematics and professional courses, lay a more solid foundation, and prepare to apply for Peking University for a second time. Through these ways, I will spare no efforts to correct my imperfections. Regardless of what the result is, I will never give up on my pursuit of my dream.

为什么本科成绩不好

在刚进入大学的时候,觉得终于能有自己在社会里打拼的机会,于是我就在大学的前两年里,在各种职业道路上探索。这就导致我对于学习,是一种被动的状态,我对自己的专业通信,对电路也提不起兴趣,因此学习成绩非常差,到了大三的时候,我第一次接触编程,是写了一个爬虫,觉得很有意思,后来接触了机器学习,觉得更有意思,想在这个领域深入。于是去蹭计算机学院的课,开始努力学习,听的过程中觉得还有太多要学的,于是就开始准备考研。

在备考的这一年里,我通过深入钻研专业的课本,通过背,通过做题,通过动手实现一些算法,通过查论文,我更是深刻感受到了数学的魅力,感受到机器学习的魅力,也正是这份憧憬,在备考最难的时候一直支撑着我。我觉得,对于科研,能坚持到最后,也是靠这份热爱。我之前的迷茫不会影响我现在,更不会影响我的将来。的确我本科成绩不好,但是在这备考的一年,我改变了很多,我每天六点多出寝室,晚上十一点多回寝室,为了北大,我放弃了一切社交一切活动,我真的非常希望可以进入科研领域,有所作为。

When I first entered the university, I felt that I could finally have the opportunity to explore the society, so I spent the first two years of college to actively try different occupations. This led me to be a passive state of learning. And I was not interested in my major of telecommunication, so my academic performance was very poor.

But in the year of preparing for the postgraduate examination, I read those professional books and implemented those algorithms, I deeply felt the charm of machine learning.

So in the year of preparing for the exam, I changed a lot. I walked into the library at 7 o’clock every day and leave at 11 o’clock at night. It’s the passion of machine learning and longing for Peking university that drive me to change, and I believe this passion could also support me to persist to the end in my scientific research. I truly hope I could enter the field of scientific research and make a difference.

应对课业负担

I’ve got 3 ways to face the time arrengement problem.

To start with, I only contentrate to one thing at a time, it’s like processes in an oprating system, too frequently switch the process will lead to low efficiency. And secondly, I’ve got a to-do-list for every week, and I will imagine the plan for the next day before I sleep. And lastly, I will give up those unimportant things, such as parties, and guarantee to finish the most important things every day.

其它

没回答好 圆场结尾句:

Maybe I am not qualified enough now, but every master grows up from a beinner, and every long journey begins with a single step

coronavirus

coronavirus, pneumonia, pandemic, infectious, incubation period, human2human transmission, illegal animals transaction
a city in quaratine, mask, disinfectant, sanitize, disinfectiong alchohol, thermometer

what do you think of the coronavirus?

一开始,武汉没有非常重视,导致在国内疯狂传播。后来在党和中央的高度重视下,武汉封城,全国人民居家隔离,武汉修建了方舱医院,火神山医院,各地医疗队赴武汉援助,疫情现在已经得到基本控制。反观国外,欧美等地没有吸取中国的经验,没有抓住中国争取的宝贵时间,使得全世界感染者超过了 30 万。中国政府也在积极帮助外国人民。传染病不是某个国家或者某个城市的过失,而是应该全人类共同面对的问题,全人类应该团结一心,共同对抗传染病,以及它带来的经济问题。

At the beginning, Wuhan did not pay much attention to it, which lead to a crazy spread in the country. Later, under the great attention of the party and the central government, Wuhan closed the city, and the people of the whole country were quaratined at home. Wuhan built a square cabin hospital, Vulcan Mountain Hospital, and medical teams from various places went to Wuhan to assist.

On the other hand, Europe and the United States and other places did not learn from China ’s experience and did not seize the precious time China was fighting for, which made more than 300,000 people infected worldwide. The Chinese government is also actively helping foreign people.

I think the novel coronavirous are not the fault of a country or a city, but a problem that all human beings should face together. All human beings should be united to fight against the coronavirous and the economic problems it brings.

what measures has been took ?

党中央封锁了武汉,建立了火神山医院和方舱医院,投入大量资金援助疫情。社会各界人民居家隔离,也为武汉捐助大量物资,各地也派遣医疗队前往武汉帮助。每个人都提高了防护意识,戴口罩,勤洗手,尽量居家隔离,不在公共场合聚集,积极配合国家的政策。正是因为国家的政策和居民们的执行,疫情才能在中国迅速得到控制。我们的经验也会帮助其他国家,全人类联合起来一起抗击新冠病毒。

The party and the central government shuted down Wuhan, established the Vulcan Mountain Hospital and the Square Cabin Hospital, and invested a large amount of funds to aid the epidemic.

People all over the country are quaratined at home, and we donate a lot of materials to Wuhan. Medical teams are also sent to Wuhan to help. Everyone has raised their awareness of protection, wearing masks, washing their hands frequently, staying at home as far as possible, not gathering in public, and actively supporting national policies.

It is because of national policies and the implementation of residents that the epidemic can be quickly controlled in China. Our experience will also help other nations and all humans to join forces to fight the coronavirus.

What do you think of the influences of the coronavirous?

The influence should be judged from 2 sides. On the negative side, the coronavirus has brought a big callenge to the medical system in china, and caused alot of death. The ecomony in china has fallen due to the coronavirus, the resturants and theaters has been closed for months. People’s income would also fall.

But in the positive side, this challenge would also improve the efficiency of hospitals, and improve the people’s sense of pursuing healthy. Furthermore, due to the pandemic, the Internet ecommerence has developed, which includes online courses, online meetings, and online e-commerences.

We are the first country to control the spread of coronavirus, and I am really proud of our country.

What is your biggest harvist during the pandemic?

I think the biggest harvest during the pandemic must be the self-discipline that I developed. During this period, I wake up early in the morning to learn data stuctures and write codes to prepare for the computer test. In the afternoon, I review the basic knowledges on computer science, and have interviews with my friends. We interview for each other, and help to improve each other. In the evning, I prepare for the graduation thesis, I spent the most of time searching for the techology blogs in the internet to learn maschine learning. I think this routine of study is my biggest harvest, because developed my self-decipline, and I think it is an essential quality for the scienfic research.

Others

  • What social responsibilities should a post-graduate take?
  • Which kind of professor do you like best?
  • What does friendship mean to you and what kind of people do you make friend with?
  • What impressed you most when you were at university?
  • 成长过程中对你影响最大的人(家人/朋友->具体事例,最好结合专业学习相关)
  • 怎么看待本科参加的学生活动(肯定,有收获,宝贵的经历;但现在想要全身心投入到科研工作上)
  • 那个比赛让你的印象最深刻(讲故事=举例子+学到什么+感悟)
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